From the essay ‘What’s Left of theory?’ In An Aesthetic Education in the Era of Globalisation. Spivak 2012: 216-7.
Katie Sims / Sun Staff Photographer
The Rohingya crisis has been termed a “textbook example of ethnic cleansing” and one of the worst humanitarian disasters of this decade. At Cornell, organizations will be rallying to raise awareness about the crisis in November, but students were able to hear about it firsthand from Prof. Gayatri Spivak, English and comparative literature, Columbia, on Monday.
The Rohingya are a stateless Indo-Aryan, dominantly Muslim people living in Myanmar. They are persecuted in a country where Buddhism is the prevalent religion, and they are even denied citizenship.
Spivak, an activist for rural education in Asia, first encountered the Rohingya in Bangladesh in the 1980s, where she said she saw them being shot at as they attempted to cross the Naf River, which marks the boundary between Bangladesh and Myanmar.
“I have never seen human beings so degraded by oppression, so robbed of dignity,” Spivak said.
Today, she said she feels a need to “speak for them, to them, and about them” whenever possible.
Spivak urged her audience to not only consider the Rohingya as a minority oppressed group, but to also regard them as human beings. Rather than think “they are like us,” imagine “we are like them,” she said.
Spivak said that unless we can envision ourselves as the same as them — as human beings — all the same, it is not worth it in the long run working to emancipate them.
“They cannot represent themselves, so they must be represented” by us, she said.
While in Myanmar, she witnessed a couple of Rohingya women sitting in the mud. Born in Calcutta, India, and similar in appearance, Spivak said she was willing to stand in the most impoverished parts of Myanmar and immerse herself completely in the culture.
The Rohingya women “saw something in my face” and thought “this is one of us,” Spivak said. “They spoke to me … They could tell I thought they were human beings. This was a huge discovery.”
The ability to draw a response from the other side acted as the impetus to dedicate herself to the Rohingya issue and reach out to these mistreated men and women, Spivak said.
One major abuse Rohingya women face is rape, Spivak said.
“Rape is at work all over the world, including in countries where we live,” she said.
In Myanmar, it is both a millennial tradition and a weapon to ethnic cleanse, Spivak said.
Furthermore, the Rohingya lack equality in regards to the people of Myanmar. In the nation-state, they are denied citizenship and cannot vote.
The Rohingya are not technically illegal immigrants, but they are stateless, Spivak said.
“We can relate [this] to Mexico. We can relate it to all kinds of places. One day, it was my place. Next day, it became illegal,” she said. “The land under my foot becomes illegal because it belongs to someone else.”
Of haircuts and Rhino coats…
This is the worked up text of a talk I gave in Chandernagore in February 2016. The photo is one I’ve failed to trace from the dates and evidence in the letters (see below) of the visit to the barber – if anyone is good at that sort of tracking, please let me know, the photographer of the first one is E. Dutertre, and the second, if authentic, probably the same.
[Added 3 April 2018 – increasingly the suspicion that the makeover photo is photoshopped is being confirmed. Michael Krätke includes the two portraits in a recent article with the caption:
“Figure 1. Left: last photograph of Karl Marx, taken by E. Dutertre in Algiers, on 28 April 1882.Right: a photomontage based upon Marx’s own correspondence, where he said that the photo was taken just a short while before he went to the barber to have his hair cut and his beard shaved off, and shows how he may have looked after his visit to the barber.
Left: IISH Collection BG A9/383. Right: creator and origins unknown.”
Krätke, Michael 2018 ‘Marx and World History’. International Review of Social History, doi:10.1017/S0020859017000657 page 13
There is also a fiction volume called Marx’s Beard I have not yet read, and marx in Algiers, mentioned elsewhere. So this story has a few loose ends still.
And the source for all this, the photo itself, Marx writes a ps in a letter to Fred on 28 April 1882 in Algiers saying he will pick up the photo in two days. From the MEGA 3(4):
[The rest of this article is being rewritten and will be linked to here in due course. Thanks to those who already downloaded a copy, and stay tuned for more after I deal with the substantial and helpful comments of reviewers].
« RADIATING GLOBALITY / OLD HISTORIES AND NEW GEOGRAPHIES »
20-21 February 2016
Salle Viseoconférence UCAD 2, Cheikh Anta Diop
************** O **************
Samedi 20 Février 2016
09:00 – 09:15
Ibrahima Thioub, Rector – UCAD
09:15 – 09:30 Gayatri Chakravorty Spivak, History and Overview
09:35 – 09:50 John Hutnyk, Global Gifts and Capture
09:55 – 10:10 Discussions
10:10 – 10:30 Ben Baer, Regionalizing Socialism — (Pan-)African Exemplarities
10:30 – 10:55 Kanu Agrawal ‘The Role of Designers, Making Connections’
10:55 – 11:15 Joël Ruet, From Development Model to Emergence Toolbox? Agriculture & Industry in West Bengal, Yunnan and Senegal
11:15 – 11:30 Discussions
11:50 – 12:10 Lakshmi Subramaniam, Riverine regions and littoral spaces: mobile geographies and connected histories
12:10 – 12:25 Discussions
12:25 – 13:45 Lunch
13:45 – 14:05 Emmanuelle Kadya Tall, Cultu(r)al productions of the South Atlantic radiating globality: Mami Wata & the Twins
14:05 – 14:20 Discussions
14:20 – 14:40 Sylvain SANKALE, Thinking economic development in Senegal around 1820 Crossing experiences
14:40 – 14:55 Discussions
14:55 – 15:15 Break
15:15 – 15:30 Souleymane Bachir diagne, Comments
15:30 – 17:00